First: The Poles of the Sky

Instrument for measuring the heigth of the celestial pole. Peter Apian (1495-1552) discusses the use of compasses for a description of the world and map making. Gemma Frisius (1508-1555) comments on this. The book (first 1540) illustrates the impact of astronomical instruments in training human vision and focusing on pointers: Cosmographia (Antverpiae; Ioannis Bellerum, 1584), Zentralbibliothek Zürich, Alte Drucke und Rara,  Ry 245, p. 10.

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